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University Language Centre

Referring to other sources

This section revises the use of reporting verbs and provides you with simple guidelines for using direct quotations in your written work. You will practise using the correct format and punctuation of in-text citations and study the difference between social science and science in- text citations.

Consideration is also given to questions concerning when to quote and when to paraphrase, as well as issues related to author attitude toward information that is used from other sources. Finally, the conventions for writing bibliographies will be analysed.

In-text referencing

Recognising oral and written reporting verbs

This learning object introduces you to a range of different reporting verbs used in speaking and writing. You will identify appropriate and inappropriate use of reporting verbs.

Using a direct quotation

In this learning object you will be presented with some basic guidelines for using direct quotations and you will study some of the conventions of their use.

Citations in text

You will focus on the correct way of using in-text citations. You will look at some examples of quotations that contain errors and correct them.

Social science and science citations in the text

You will study the differences between the style of in-text citation often found in the Social Sciences and pure sciences. You will write a paragraph in one of the styles to practise including in-text citation. You will be able to practise using direct quotation and paraphrase.

Balanced use of paraphrase and quotation

You will consider the question of how you should decide whether to use paraphrase or quotation when referring to other writers in your work.

Analysing use of paraphrase and quotation

This task requires you to consider how paraphrase and quotation are used in a series of extracts.

Summarising, paraphrasing and referencing source text

You will see how information from different authors can be combined together to form a summary or paraphrase with appropriate referencing.

Author or information prominence

You will consider how to identify whether a writer is emphasising the information or the author when referring to other sources.

Writer attitude towards the work of other authors

This activity considers whether a writer agrees with the information taken from other authors.

Identifying Writer attitude

In this activity you can practise identifying the evidence that tells you the writer's attitude to the information taken from other sources by looking at a number of examples.

Bibliographies

Writing bibliographies

You will learn how to write bibliographic references from a range of paper-based and Internet sources.

Analysis of an example bibliography

This task will allow you to test your knowledge of the conventions for writing bibliographic references from a range of sources.